In the Media

In the Media

Retail Revolution: You Ain’t Seen Nothing Yet

Jeffrey F. Rayport, Harvard Business Review, January 27, 2012

Just when any sensible person might have concluded that e-commerce business models had finally reached maturity, we are witnessing a veritable explosion of new ones.  Powered by local, mobile, and social media, online retail is becoming something that no long-time, card-carrying NRF member might reasonably have anticipated.

What Big Data Needs: A Code of Ethical Practices

Jeffrey F. Rayport, MIT Technology Review, May 26, 2011

This Big Picture essay ends Tech Review’s month-long special report on data analytics by discussing four key principles that companies should follow if they hope to analyze customers’ data without alienating them.

How Companies Are Using Data from Foursquare

Carine Carmy, MIT Technology Review, May 24, 2011

When Foursquare began, it was easy to wonder what the point was beyond the game. It asked people to “check in” when visiting places like shops, bars, or restaurants and then gave them a chance to compete for virtual prizes, like badges and recognition as “mayor” after visiting a place more than anyone else. Now, with more than nine million users, Foursquare is beginning to prove its value to businesses. It is becoming the rare social-media service that lets them directly analyze whether promotions lead to sales.

The Psychology of Collaboration

Jodi Slater, MIT Technology Review, March 16, 2011

Speaking with IBM fellow Irene Greif about the limitations of collaborating through software, this interview for Technology Review examines why some of the hardest collaboration problems have nothing to do with technology.

Collaborating by Connecting Websites

Carine Carmy, MIT Technology Review, March 9, 2011

One of the most powerful collaboration tools available is not a piece of software for employees to use on their PCs. Nor is it an enterprise social network used to break down office silos. It is a technology that’s simple, open, and often free: the application programming interface (API).

Can We Finally Eradicate Bad Products?

Jeffrey F. Rayport, Harvard Business Review, March 3, 2011

Consumers can readily make it non-economic for companies to sell bad products. Bad products were always bad for consumers. Now, they’re bad for business, too.

Technology Will Make Collaboration Your Next Competitive Advantage

Jeffrey F. Rayport, MIT Technology Review, March 1, 2011

This Big Picture essay kicks off Tech Review’s month-long special report on collaboration tools by discussing how new tools are changing the way people work with each other, their companies’ partners, and their customers.

Who Rules the Web Now?

Jeffrey F. Rayport and Peter C. Horan, Harvard Business Review, February 22, 2011

At the recent Online Publishers Association Member Summit, the Rayport and Horan gave a keynote in which they presented some hypotheses about the future of online competition. The audience was composed of C-level digital executives from nearly a hundred major media brands. However, they believe that the competitive dynamics shaping online media businesses will also affect many mainstream and Main Street businesses that don’t normally think of themselves as competing with Internet titans.

Google’s Search Gold Mine Could Tap Out

Jeffrey F. Rayport, BusinessWeek, February 13, 2011

Unless Google’s search prowess takes a more “vertical” turn, the company’s “horizontal” search strategy is increasingly vulnerable to specialist search sites.

What Is Facebook, Really?

Jeffrey F. Rayport, Harvard Business Review, February 2, 2011

There was a curious absence from last month’s Online Publishers Association Annual Member Summit. Facebook wasn’t there. The more Rayport pondered this, the more ironic its omission from the program seemed.

Advertising — from art to science?

Silicon Republic, January 3, 2011 & Marketing Age, Volume 4, Issue 3 2010

Credited with coining the term viral marketing, former Harvard professor Jeffrey Rayport says the future of advertising will centre on the use of real-time analytics and marketing to the individual, not the masses.

Read full print edition with Rayport on the cover

Editor’s Pick: Top marketing interviews of 2010

Business and Leadership, December 29, 2010

Business & Leadership spoke to some of the world’s thought leaders in sales and marketing during 2010. Jeffrey Rayport was highlighted in the favorite interviews from the year.

The Miracle of Memphis

Jeffrey F. Rayport, MIT Technology Review, December 20, 2010

The retail season is in full swing for the holidays, and it couldn’t happen without two giants of logistics, UPS and FedEx. As those brown UPS trucks remind us, the global economy thrives on “synchronizing the world of commerce.”

Facebook’s New Golden Rule

Jeffrey F. Rayport, Harvard Business Review, December 16, 2010

You don’t often attend an NFL game to bring home a profound insight about marketing. But that was Jeffrey Rayport’s good fortune at Massachusetts’s Gillette Stadium, where 50 or so CMOs and CEOs gathered to discuss the impacts of digital, social, and mobile media on marketing.

Seven Social Transformations Unleashed by Mobile Devices

Jeffrey F. Rayport, MIT Technology Review, November 30, 2010

This Big Picture essay wraps up Tech Review’s month-long special report on the Mobile Enterprise by discussing how the ubiquitous technology redefines the way we engage with people, information, and companies.

Download the full report.

Andrew Heyward on CNBC’s “Fast Money,” discussing implications of the iPad for big media

Andrew Heyward, CNBC, October 2, 2010

Will the iPad “rescue” traditional publishers and their declining business models?  Heyward, in a lively exchange with host Melissa Lee and four Wall Street traders, argues that content creators will have to provide a customer experience that exploits the iPad’s distinctive strengths if they want to profit from its popularity.

Andrew Heyward on CNN’s “Reliable Sources” discussing the future of network news

Andrew Heyward, CNN, September 12, 2010

In the wake of the announced departure of ABC News chief David Westin, Heyward analyzes the challenges facing network news in an age of fragmenting markets and seismic generational change in consumer behavior.

The iPad Showdown: Apple Versus Comcast

Jeffrey F. Rayport, Harvard Business Review, January 28, 2010

With yesterday’s long-awaited release of the iPad, the Web is atwitter with prophecies regarding the face-off between Apple and Amazon. At twice the price, maybe the iPad is a Kindle Killer — maybe. But Kindle is a single-purpose device for reading, while iPad is a multi-purpose device for entertainment.

In short, it’s not Jeff Bezos who should wake up worried by yesterday’s announcement; it’s Brian L. Roberts.

Cable TV vs. Cable Broadband

Jeffrey F. Rayport, BusinessWeek, June 3, 2009

By delivering high-speed Internet access, the cable industry has given its customers a way to bypass its monthly subscriptions to programming, writes Jeffrey F. Rayport.

How Social Networks Are Changing Everything

Jeffrey F. Rayport, BusinessWeek, May 7, 2009

Facebook and its ilk offer platforms to explore all the Web with one’s relevant data in tow, and they’re set to overtake the big portals.

Envisioning the Cloud: The Next Computing Paradigm

Jeffrey F. Rayport and Andrew Heyward, March 20, 2009

What technologists like to call “the cloud” is the idea of computing on demand. To realize the enormous potential of the cloud, the role of government must be to clear the way for cloud computing, not to pave it. In this paper, co-authors Andrew Heyward and Jeffrey F. Rayport argue that there are eight fundamental elements for “enabling” the cloud to realize its full potential. While policy-makers can play a supportive role, the cloud, like the roll-out of the Internet before it, is taking shape on its own, in ways largely mediated by market forces. But policy action can safeguard the cloud’s future as the basis for a flourishing new technology sector here in the U.S. This paper presents the cloud as one avenue for the U.S. to re-assert economic and technology leadership on a global stage.

Download the Whitepaper

Make Online Ads Accountable

Jeffrey F. Rayport, Business Week, February 17, 2009

The decline in Cost-Per-Thousand (CPM) pricing for online advertising does not necessarily mean a decline in the value of online as an advertising medium, instead it may signal the need for the industry to shift to a Cost-Per-Click business model (from which Google has continually profited), writes Jeffrey F. Rayport a partner at Monitor and founder and chairman of Marketspace, a digital strategy and customer experience practice affiliated with Monitor Group.

Using the web for only brand-building neglects the medium’s most unique competency, Rayport writes: “Yes, the Web is effective for brand building, but in dwelling relentlessly on display advertising and CPM pricing, we’re losing focus on the Internet’s real power as a medium for direct marketing and eliciting a response.”

Does Your Company Need a Digital Readiness Checklist?

Jeffrey F. Rayport, Harvard Business Review, February 9, 2009

So, how do you know if you and your organization are poised to win the future? Take a page out of surgeon and writer Atul Gawande’s recently released polemic, The Checklist Manifesto, and assess your organization with a checklist of your own. Atul’s checklist is focused on hygiene. Your checklist is also about hygiene, but of a corporate kind. It’s about “digital readiness” for a digitally transformed world.

Media Companies Need To Become Marketing Companies

Andrew Heyward and Jeffrey F. Rayport, Harvard Business Review, February 3, 2009

In the evolving digital landscape where “every media company must also become a marketing company,” Rayport and Heyward argue that the challenge for publishers remains how to achieve that goal without sacrificing their credibility and integrity. They cite a compelling example from a leading media company.

Social Networks Are the New Web Portals

Jeffrey F. Rayport, BusinessWeek, January 21, 2009

Social networks like Facebook and MySpace are becoming the new gateways to the Web, threatening the dominance of Google, Yahoo, MSN, and AOL, writes Jeffrey F. Rayport.

While the portals are doing their best to catch up, challenges abound, Rayport writes: “Google’s oft-stated mission is “to organize the world’s information.” Organizing information is how earlier generations of Web companies have traditionally created value for users, with or without search. But the new game is radically different. Facebook, in particular, has set out to organize not the world’s content, but the world’s people. As this social meta-Web emerges, the players that own and harness social applications will radically reorganize and reshape the Web in ways we can only imagine today, and that will profoundly alter our experience of the online world.”

Jeffrey Rayport on Why Online Ads Are Weathering the Recession

Jeffrey F. Rayport, BusinessWeek, December 24, 2008

Jeffrey Rayport looks at the effect of the recession on online advertising compared to other forms of traditional advertising. The online advertising landscape has changed since the last recession and the benefits of the pay-as-you-go approach are more appealing to senior-level marketing decision-makers during this time of budget cuts.

Cloud Computing Is No Pipe Dream

Jeffrey F. Rayport, BusinessWeek, December 9, 2008

Tech pundits and practitioners alike have spilled lots of ink to hype cloud computing. They’ll encourage you to think of it as IT infrastructure on demand—like plugging into the power grid to get electricity, or turning on a faucet to get water, but getting raw computing power instead. To boot, you’ll get access to storage capacity and software-based services—and it can scale infinitely, proponents point out.

Can Anything Derail Google’s Growth Engine

Jeffrey F. Rayport, BusinessWeek, October 27, 2008

You probably won’t get rich betting against Google. Every quarter, cynics predict a stumble. Most of the time, they’re wrong. Even when Google misses analysts’ forecasts, the company still manages to deliver impressive gains, notes Jeffrey F. Rayport.

Still, as Google heads toward $20 billion in sales this year, ranking No. 5 among the fastest-growing tech companies tracked by BusinessWeek, it’s tempting again to ask whether anything can derail the company’s growth engine. And while the company’s reach and potential are undeniable, it will undoubtedly face challenges on many fronts, particularly from rivals, regulators, and the recession.

Future of Online Video Rountable

Andrew Heyward, Stanford University, California, July 29, 2008

Andrew Heyward moderates a panel discussion about the integration of citizen journalism into mainstream media. Video clip and blog by Andy Plesser, Executive Producer of Beet.TV.

“Presidents, Pedigree and Planners”

Geoffrey Precourt, WARC {blog}, July 21, 2008

Geoffrey Precourt writes about the dazzling and energetic presentation given by Jeffrey Rayport at the AAAA Account Planning Conference.

“Meet Customers 3.0”
Commentary: Smart retailers will innovate to catch next wave of shoppers.

Jeffrey F. Rayport & Eric J. McNulty, MarketWatch, June 5, 2008

What if the current retail recession is about more than the overall slowdown of the global economy? In our view, there’s more here than meets the eye. Put another way, when the good times are back, our bet is that many retail businesses will still be wondering where their customers are.

“Why Ballmer Bailed on Yahoo”

Jeffrey F. Rayport, BusinessWeek, May 10, 2008

According to Jeffrey F. Rayport, there are five reasons Microsoft’s chief gave up on his bid for Yahoo, including its cost and its not making sense.

“QVC shops for ideas for future sales”

Laura Petrecca, USA TODAY, May 4, 2008

QVC must figure out how to keep the business healthy as the media and retail landscapes undergo seismic shifts. It needs to remain “relevant” (in marketing speak) to consumers while enticing a new generation of shoppers and battling a perception that direct-response TV retailers sell just hokey, flimsy or kitschy goods.

“Where Is Advertising Going? Into Stitials”

Jeffrey F. Rayport, Harvard Business Review, May 1, 2008

Advertising is now universally acknowledged to be broken, but the need for it obviously still exists. Making it effective again will require radically altering our perspective on the interstitial. Instead of choosing from the available slots between segments of media, marketers must turn the age-old formula on its head. It’s high time to focus not on “avails” in media but on those in consumers’ daily lives—where, when, and how people might prove receptive to relevant commercial messages. We’re not talking anymore about interstitials. We’re talking about what I call vivistitials.

Old Media Takes Aim at Web Goliaths

Catherine Holahan, BusinessWeek, February 25, 2008

Jeffrey F. Rayport talks to Holahan about how four large newspaper owners are forming an online ad network called quadrantOne in hopes of competing with Google, Yahoo, Microsoft, and AOL.

View Andrew Heyward speak about The Revolution in Online News: “Journalists will be Peers or Representatives”

Interview by Andy Plesser, Beet.TV, February 22, 2008

Andrew Heyward comments to business news reporter Andy Plesser, founder of Beet.TV, about how a new generation of tech-savvy news consumers and news providers are re-shaping the journalism landscape.

What Can Microsoft Offer Yahoo?

Rick Wartzman, BusinessWeek, February 14, 2008

Jeffrey F. Rayport talks to Wartzman about what makes Yahoo an appealing target for Microsoft.

Why the Wall Street Journal Online Will (Eventually) Go Free

Jeffrey F. Rayport, Harvard Business Review, February 11, 2008

It’s not often that the conventional wisdom in business gets turned on its head not once but twice in a month’s time. But Rupert Murdoch’s recent statements, following News Corps’ acquisition of Dow-Jones, that he intends to keep the Wall Street Journal’s website a subscription service certainly qualifies.

“It’s Down to Two: Microsoft and Google”

Jeffrey F. Rayport, BusinessWeek, February 4, 2008

If Microsoft’s $44 billion acquisition of Yahoo! looks like a big business story, it is—but not necessarily for the reasons you’ve been reading about these past few days. Yes, it’s a Big Gulp of a deal that will pay a 60%-plus premium on the share price. And yes, it’s a transaction that marries two high-profile brands of the technology world.

Microsoft-Yahoo Faces an Approval Gauntlet

Catherine Holahan, BusinessWeek, February 4, 2008

Jeffrey F. Rayport talks to Holahan about how U.S. and EU authorities will inspect the proposed acquisition, but thanks to Google’s dominance, the merger should get a green light.

“Microsoft’s bid for Yahoo is bigger than you think”
Commentary: Acquisition would change landscape of online search industry.

Jeffrey F. Rayport, MarketWatch, February 4, 2008

Sure, at $44 billion, this M&A transaction is gargantuan by any measure — relative to other media and technology deals, and in absolute terms. Indeed, it dwarfs any one in the breathtaking series of recent combinations that have already shaken the online world, including Google’s acquisition of dMarc ($1.1 billion), Publicis’s of Digitas ($1.3 billion), Google’s of YouTube ($1.65 billion), Google’s of DoubleClick ($3.1 billion), and, yes, Microsoft’s of aQuantive ($6 billion).

Microsoft Swoops In on Yahoo

Catherine Holahan, BusinessWeek, February 1, 2008

Jeffrey F. Rayport talks to Holahan about how the software king, with its $44.6 billion bid for the portal, wants to catch Google in the ballooning online ad market.

Google Disappoints the Street

Catherine Holahan, BusinessWeek, January 31, 2008

Jeffrey F. Rayport talks to Holahan about what caused Google’s disappointing Q4 results.

“Will the real Steve Ballmer please stand up?”
Commentary: Why Facebook was worth the bet.

Jeffrey F. Rayport, MarketWatch, November 14, 2007

On October 1st, in an interview with the London Times, Microsoft’s CEO declared social networking was a fad- the kind that appealed to younger people. He added, “There can’t be any more deep technology in Facebook than what dozens of people could write in a couple of years, that’s for sure.” Well, that was then.

“Adopting New Rules of Consumer Engagement”

Jeffrey F. Rayport, Imagining the Future of Newspapers {blog}, November 10, 2007

There’s no doubt that information, not just news, is a growth business, even if newspaper publishing is not. But newspapers must find ways to align themselves with drivers of growth in a market they already know.

“Advertising’s death is greatly exaggerated
Commentary: But marketers are losing touch with customers”

Jeffrey F. Rayport, MarketWatch, June 8, 2007

To judge from ad-industry publications, advertising is in crisis. The stories of upheaval in how agencies serve clients, create value and get paid might readily suggest that advertising as a profession and business is dead, or dying. Nothing could be further from the truth.

“Economics 101: Web Giants Rule ‘Democratized’ Medium: Why It’s the Best of Times and Worst of Times for Web Publishers”

Abbey Kaassen, Advertising Age, April 8, 2007

Marketspace Chairman Jeffrey Rayport suggests that the share of net ad revenue could disproportionately shift toward the Big Four online portals as the gross adspend steadily rises.

“Demand-Side Innovation: Where IT Meets Marketing”

Jeffrey F. Rayport, Optimize Magazine, Issue 64, February 2007

It’s not a better mousetrap that will set businesses apart. In the online social-networking marketplace, customers can make or break a product. How will businesses tap into this new world?

“What Serves the Customer Best?”

Harvard Business Review, HBR Case Study and Commentary, October 1, 2006

What should be the priority for Glenmeadie’s innovation efforts? Four commentators offer expert advice. Commenting on this fictional case study are David Herman, president of luggage maker Hartmann; Marketspace’s president, Jeffrey Rayport; Stephen Dull, vice president of strategy at VF; and Joe Scafido, who leads innovation at Dunkin’ Brands.

“Flash in the Online Plan”

Meridith Levinson, CIO Magazine, April 5, 2006

Rich Internet technologies can make your Web engaging for customers and more profitable for you. Jeffrey Rayport says it’s in companies’ best interests to try out new Web technologies. “If you don’t find a way to experiment with these new technologies to find out which will be relevant to your customers, and your competitors get it right, you’ll have a lot of catching up to do,” he says.

“Customer Service Hell”

Hannah Clark, Forbes, March 30, 2006

As companies cut costs and shift their call centers overseas, service has become less personal–and more frustrating. There’s a solution to this problem: e-mail. Companies save money by answering queries over the Internet. And customers don’t have to waste time waiting on hold. But there’s a problem: E-mail help doesn’t work well, and it’s only getting worse.

“Why CIOs and CMOs Need Each Other”

Jeffrey F. Rayport, CIO Magazine, February 15, 2006

Every time you see significant dysfunction in the way a company or brand interacts with its customers, it is not the fault of one corporate function but two—both marketing and technology.

“Servolution: The Future of the Service”

Interview with Jeffrey F. Rayport, GDI Impuls, Winter 2005

“The Strength of Combination of Humans and Machines”

Jeffrey F. Rayport and Bernard J. Jaworski, io new management, Nr. 10, 2005

“The Customer Service Challenge”

Jeffrey F. Rayport,, December 6, 2005

In the rush to save money, many companies are unwittingly pushing their customers through inappropriate “channel pathways” and poorly executed interfaces, costing themselves near-term revenue and long-term relationships whose value far outweighs whatever savings, if any, may initially be realized. Jeffrey F. Rayport argues that the basis of competition in many industries is shifting from what companies sell to how they go to market through a firm’s channels and interfaces.

“Best Face Forward: Improving Companies’ Service Interfaces with Customers”

Journal of Interactive Marketing, Volume 19, Issue 4, October 19, 2005

Jeffrey F. Rayport, Bernard J. Jaworski and Ellie J. Kyung examine the origins of the “front-office revolution,” and the need for businesses to manage coordinated interface systems.

“Emerging Thinkers”

Optimize Magazine, October 2005

A sampling of ideas from the best and brightest thinkers on IT you’ll be hearing more about, including Nicholas Carr, Jeffrey Rayport, Chris Trimble, Barry Nalebuff and Ian Ayres, and Ellen Kitzis.

“The Second Internet Boom”

Management of Business Models, Interview with Jeffrey F. Rayport, Personlich, June 2005

“My View: Face Forward”

Jeffrey F. Rayport, Microsoft Executive Circle, Spring 2005

Leading companies now must look to a new frontier of competitive advantage based not on what they sell but how they sell. It’s a new frontier defined by the effectiveness and efficiency with which a firm orchestrates its interactions and relationships with its customers and markets. This article originally appeared in the Spring 2005 issue of Microsoft Executive Circle Magazine.

“Tech Nation Interview with Jeffrey F. Rayport”

KQED, May 1, 2005

Jeffrey Rayport discusses his new book, Best Face Forward; Why Companies Must Improve Their Service Interfaces with Customers (co-authored with Bernard J. Jaworski) with Dr. Moira Gunn on her weekly nationally-syndicated radio program about new advances in technology.

“Who Knows the Customer Best?”

Optimize Magazine, March 2005

Customer interfaces can either be a strategic advantage or a huge liability- a chief experience officer can ensure it’s the latter.

“Process/Data Divide Impedes BI”

Intelligent Enterprise, March 2005

The article summarizes the need for business intelligence to focus less on data and more on business processes in order to make effective strategic choices. Best Face Forward featured in a “Get Smart” box that concludes the article.

“The Front Office Revolution,” and “Customer Care’s New Frontier”

Video Interviews with Jeffrey Rayport,, February 2005

In these two interviews, Jeffrey Rayport talks in detail about the changes taking place as interface systems, and the experiences they create for customers, become the new arena for competitive advantage.

“Demand Side Innovation”

“The HBR List: Breakthrough Ideas for 2005,” Harvard Business Review, February 1, 2005

In his leading segment of HBR’s 20 new ideas for 2005, Jeffrey F. Rayport argues for shifting the locus of innovation from what companies take to market to how they go to market.

“QVC: Driving Sales in Real Time”

Excerpt from Harvard Business School Working Knowledge, January 24, 2005

Service interfaces work best with customers when technologies and humans play to their strengths. This Working Knowledge excerpt from Best Face Forward discusses how QVC maximizes sales with a highly effective hybrid approach of machine and human talent.

“Book Excerpt: Best Face Forward, Why Customer Interfaces Are the Next Frontier of Competitive Advantage”

CMO Magazine, January 2005

Read an excerpt from Best Face Forward published in the January, 2005 issue.

“Big Picture: Best Face Forward”

Harvard Business Review, December 2004

Jeffrey F. Rayport and Bernard J. Jaworski, “Big Picture: Best Face Forward,” Harvard Business Review. The new frontier of competitive advantage is the customer interface. Making yours a winner will require the right people—and increasingly, machines—on the front lines.

View the HBR Executive Summary

Rayport and Jaworski, “Best Face Forward, Why Companies Must Improve Their Service Interfaces with Customers”

HBS Press, January 2005

Currently, translation editions in production in Spanish, Italian, Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Russian.

Marketspace publishes five textbooks and one casebook with McGraw-Hill/Irwin

2001 – 2004

Marketspace published five textbooks and one casebook with McGraw-Hill/Irwin for the college and graduate school markets on ebusiness, Internet marketing, and ecommerce, under a shared imprint between McGraw-Hill and Marketspace University. Launched website at to support faculty adopters of textbooks with courseware, videos, presentations, and related instructional materials.

“The Truth About Internet Business Models”

Strategy & Business, Third Quarter 1999

Rayport argued that Net businesses were neither a sector nor unlike any other business, and that real economics — primarily, media and retail economics — would ultimately apply to these businesses.

“Spark Innovation through Empathic Design”

Harvard Business Review, November – December 1997

Dorothy Leonard and Rayport, in HBR, which talked about the value of ethnographic or observational consumer research, highlighting the particular relevance of this approach to consumer understanding in online environments.

“The Coming Battle for Customer Information”

Harvard Business Review, January – February 1997

Rayport and John Hagel III, in HBR, was one in a series of articles on the concept of “infomediaries,” including a related piece in The McKinsey Quarterly called “The New Infomediaries,” which discussed the new value companies would place on gathering, organizing, analyzing, and trading in customer information.

“The Virus of Marketing”

Harvard Business Review, December 1996

Rayport introduced the concept, defined the principles, and coined the term “viral marketing,” which was subsequently claimed by many authors.

“Exploiting the Virtual Value Chain”

Harvard Business Review, November – December 1995

Sequel article published, Rayport and Sviokla, which was the lead piece in that issue of HBR, which adapted mainstream thinking about the value chain to the increasingly important information space in which businesses compete.

“Managing in the Marketspace”

Harvard Business Review, November – December 1994

First e-commerce article published, Rayport and John J. Sviokla, Harvard Business Review, which introduced the concept of businesses competing in two worlds — one physical, another made of information.


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